*Franklin is a city in Venango County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was estimated 6,545 in the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Venango County. Franklin is part of the Oil City, PA Micropolitan Statistical Area. Contents 1 History 2 Geography 3 Demographics 4 Crime 5 Education 6 Transportation 7 Attractions 8 Notable people 9 Sports 10 In popular culture 11 References 12 External links History The city's namesake is Benjamin Franklin. The Samuel F. Dale House and Franklin Historic District are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The Plumer Block was listed from 1978 to 1986. Geography Franklin is located at 41°23'52?N 79°49'53?W (41.3978, -79.8314). According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.7 square miles (12 km2), of which 4.6 square miles (12 km2) is land and 0.1 square miles (0.26 km2) (1.70%) is water. Demographics Historical population Census Pop. %± 1810 159 — 1820 252 58.5% 1830 410 62.7% 1840 595 45.1% 1850 936 57.3% 1860 1,303 39.2% 1870 3,908 199.9% 1880 5,010 28.2% 1890 6,221 24.2% 1900 7,317 17.6% 1910 9,767 33.5% 1920 9,970 2.1% 1930 10,254 2.8% 1940 9,948 -3.0% 1950 10,006 0.6% 1960 9,586 -4.2% 1970 8,629 -10.0% 1980 8,146 -5.6% 1990 7,329 -10.0% 2000 7,212 -1.6% 2010 6,545 -9.2% Est. 2014 6,350  -3.0% Sources: As of the census of 2000, there were 7,212 people, 3,030 households, and 1,824 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,560.2 people per square mile (602.7/km²). There were 3,281 housing units at an average density of 709.8 per square mile (274.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 94.77% White, 3.12% African American, 0.08% Native American, 0.33% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.31% from other races, and 1.37% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.67% of the population. There were 3,030 households out of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.5% were married couples living together, 14.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.8% were non-families. 35.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.94. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.8% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 25.9% from 25 to 44, 23.1% from 45 to 64, and 18.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 86.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,063, and the median income for a family was $37,433. Males had a median income of $35,088 versus $22,475 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,414. About 13.6% of families and 17.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.4% of those under age 18 and 14.4% of those age 65 or over. Crime Crime for 2009 (Source: FBI) Population Violent crime Murder and non-negligent man-slaughter Forcible rape Robbery Aggravated assault Property crime Burglary Larceny-theft Motor vehicle theft Arson 6,608 25 0 5 5 15 176 27 144 5 0 Education The Franklin Area School District currently has one high school, one middle school, and four elementary schools located throughout the area with an estimated 2278 students. The Valley Grove School District currently has one high school and one elementary school located in the Franklin area with an estimated 1026 students. It formerly consisted of one high school, one middle school and two elementary schools, but a consolidation and rebuilding project converted the middle school into a single elementary school that reopened in 2007. Saint Patrick Roman Catholic Church operates an elementary school in the city. Transportation Venango Regional Airport Attractions View of the confluence of French Creek (left) with the Allegheny River at Riverfront Park in Franklin Applefest, the largest craft festival in Western Pennsylvania DeBence Antique Music World Franklin Silver Cornet Band, formed in 1856, one of the oldest traditional town bands in the United States. Barrow-Civic Theatre, performing arts venue for community and Franklin Civic Operetta Association, founded 1959. Franklin Public Library, The Franklin Public Library was founded in 1894 and has had several homes, although its current location on Twelfth Street has been its home since 1921. The original structure on Twelfth Street was built in 1849 as a residence and required extensive renovations in 1921 to make it suitable for library use. A children's room was added in 1964 and another wing was added for the adult collection in 1978. Riverfront Park Notable people John Wilkes Booth (May 10, 1838 – April 26, 1865) Abraham Lincoln's assassin. In 1864 he formed an oil company in Franklin and resided there while performing at the Franklin Opera House. Nate Byham (born June 27, 1988) American football tight end for the Tampa Bay Buccaneers. Jack Fultz (born August 27, 1948) Winner of the 1976 Boston Marathon. Judge Robert Lamberton (March 20, 1809 – August 7, 1885) Associate Judge of the Courts of Venango County, Pennsylvania and founder of the Lamberton Savings Bank. Rolland Lawrence (born March 24, 1951) American football Cornerback for the Atlanta Falcons. Hildegarde Dolson Lockridge (1908-1981) Author of mysteries and histories, including We Shook the Family Tree. Ted Marchibroda (born March 15, 1931) American football quarterback and head coach in the National Football League. Alexander McDowell (March 4, 1845 – September 30, 1913) Member of the United States House of Representatives. Charles Miller (June 15, 1843 – December 21, 1927) Franklin businessman and commander of the Pennsylvania National Guard Division Jesse L. Reno (April 20, 1823 – September 14, 1862) United States Army Major General. George C. Rickards (August 25, 1860 -- January 15, 1933) Major General in the United States Army and Chief of the National Guard Bureau Sean W. Rowe (born 1975) Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Northwestern Pennsylvania. George R. Snowden (February 12, 1841 – April 21, 1932) Major General in the Pennsylvania National Guard and commander of the Pennsylvania National Guard Division John A. Wiley (September 3, 1843 – December 28, 1909) National Guard Major General who commanded the 28th Infantry Division Howard Zahniser (February 25, 1906 – May 5, 1964) Environmental activist who authored the Wilderness Act. Sports In 1903, the city was the home of the Franklin Athletic Club, one of the earliest professional football teams. That season, the team was unofficially recognized as the "US Football Champions" and later won the 1903 World Series of Football, held that December at Madison Square Garden. The team included several of the era's top players, such as: Herman Kerchoff, Arthur McFarland, Clark Schrontz, Paul Steinberg, Pop Sweet, Eddie Wood, and coach Blondy Wallace. Among other sporting accomplishments, Franklin Area High School has won two state basketball championships. In 2001 and 2006, the boys team, playing in PIAA Class AAA District 10, defeated Allentown Central Catholic out of District 11 and Communications Tech from District 12 (Philadelphia Public League), respectively. In popular culture The city was the setting of an episode of The X-Files entitled "Blood". It appeared in the show's second season and was actually filmed in British Columbia.
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*The City of Salem is a coastal city in Essex County, Massachusetts, in the United States. Located on the North Shore, Massachusetts, Salem is a New England bedrock of history and is considered one of the most significant seaports in Puritan American history. The City of Salem's reported population was 41,340 at the 2010 census. Salem and Lawrence were the county seats of Essex County prior to the abolishment of county government in 1999. The city is home to the House of Seven Gables, Salem State University, the Salem Willows Park, Forrest River Park, and the Peabody Essex Museum Salem is a residential and tourist area which includes the neighborhoods of Salem Neck, The Point, South Salem and North Salem, Witchcraft Heights, Pickering Wharf, and the McIntire Historic District (named after Salem's famous architect and carver, Samuel McIntire). Featured notably in Arthur Miller's The Crucible, much of the city's cultural identity is reflective of its role as the location of the Salem witch trials of 1692: Police cars are adorned with witch logos, a local public school is known as the Witchcraft Heights Elementary School, the Salem High School athletic teams are named the Witches; and Gallows Hill, a site of numerous public hangings, is currently used as a playing field for various sports. Tourists know Salem as a mix of important historical sites and a vibrant downtown that has more than 60 restaurants, cafes and coffee shops. In 2012, the Retailers Association of Massachusetts chose Salem as the recipient of their inaugural "Best Shopping District" award. President Barack Obama on January 10, 2013 signed executive order HR1339 designating Salem as the birthplace of the U.S. National Guard. Contents 1 History 2 Salem and the Revolutionary War 3 Trade with the Pacific and Africa 4 Legacy of the East Indies and Old China Trade 5 Air Station Salem and the National Guard 5.1 Designation as National Guard Birthplace 6 World record for Federal furniture 7 Film, literature,and television in Salem 8 Geography and transportation 8.1 North Shore Medical Center, Salem 8.2 The Salem Ferry 8.3 Salem bike sharing program 8.4 Electric car charge program 9 Salem Senior Center 10 Waterfront redevelopment 11 Salem Coal Plant site 12 Demographics 13 Education 13.1 Salem State University 13.2 Primary and secondary education 14 Tourism 14.1 Historic homes 14.2 Witch-related tourism 14.3 Other tourist attractions 15 Points of interest 15.1 Salem points of interest 16 Notable people 16.1 Notable residents of Salem 17 Sister cities 18 Notes 19 References 20 Further reading 21 External links History See also: Timeline of Salem, Massachusetts, history Nathaniel Hawthorne by Bela Pratt Scene along the Salem waterfront circa 1770-80 Salem, located at the mouth of the Naumkeag river at the site of an ancient Native American village and trading center, was first settled by Europeans in 1626, when a company of fishermen from Cape Ann led by Roger Conant arrived. Conant's leadership had provided the stability to survive the first two years, but he was immediately replaced by John Endecott, one of the new arrivals, by order of the Massachusetts Bay Company. Conant graciously stepped aside and was granted 200 acres (0.81 km2) of land in compensation. These "New Planters" and the "Old Planters" agreed to cooperate, in large part due to the diplomacy of Conant and Endicott. In recognition of this peaceful transition to the new government, the name of the settlement was changed to Salem, a hellenized form of the word for "peace" in Hebrew ???? (shalom), and the name mentioned several times in the Bible and traditionally associated with Jerusalem. In 1628, Endecott ordered that the Great ("Governor's") House be moved from Cape Ann, reassembling on what is now Washington Street north of Church Street. When Higginson arrived in Salem, he wrote that "we found a faire house newly built for the Governor" which was remarkable for being two stories high. A year later, the Massachusetts Bay Charter was issued creating the Massachusetts Bay Colony with Matthew Craddock as its governor in London and Endecott as its governor in the colony. John Winthrop was elected Governor in late 1629, and arrived with the Winthrop Fleet in 1630, beginning the Great Migration. In 1639, Endecott's was one of the signatures on the building contract for enlarging the meeting house in Town House Square for the First Church in Salem. This document remains part of the town records at City Hall. He was active in the affairs of the town throughout his life. Samuel Skelton was the first pastor of the First Church of Salem, which is the original Puritan church in North America. Endecott already had a close relationship with Skelton, having been converted by him, and Endecott considered him as his spiritual father. Title page of A Modest Enquiry Into the Nature of Witchcraft by John Hale (Boston, 1702) Roger Conant died in 1679, at the age of 87; a large statue commemorating him stands overlooking Salem Common. Salem originally included much of the North Shore, including Marblehead. Most of the accused in the Salem witch trials lived in nearby "Salem Village", now known as Danvers, although a few lived on the outskirts of Salem. Salem Village also included Peabody and parts of present-day Beverly. Middleton, Topsfield, Wenham and Manchester-by-the-Sea were once parts of Salem. William Hathorne was a prosperous businessman in early Salem and became one of its leading citizens of the early colonial period. He led troops to victory in King Philip's War, served as a magistrate on the highest court, and was chosen as the first speaker of the House of Deputies. He was a zealous advocate of the personal rights of freemen against royal emissaries and agents. Puritans had come to Massachusetts to obtain religious freedom for themselves, but had no particular interest in establishing a haven for other faiths. The laws were harsh, with punishments that included fines, deprivation of property, banishment or imprisonment. One of the most widely known aspects of Salem is its history of witchcraft allegations, which in many popular accounts started with Abigail Williams, Betty Parris, and their friends playing with a Venus glass (mirror) and egg. Salem is also significant in legal history as the site of the Dorthy Talbye trial, where a mentally ill woman was hanged for murdering her daughter, because at the time Massachusetts made no distinction between insanity and criminal behavior. The story of the girls in Salem experimenting with fortune-telling is, however, apocryphal. William Hathorne's son, Judge John Hathorne, came to prominence in the late 17th century. People generally believed witchcraft to be real. Nothing caused more fear in the Puritan community than people who appeared to be possessed by demons, and witchcraft was a serious felony. Judge Hathorne is the best known of the witch trial judges, and he became known as the "Hanging Judge" for sentencing witches to death. Salem and the Revolutionary War On February 26, 1775, patriots raised the drawbridge at the North River, preventing British Colonel Alexander Leslie and his 300 troops of the 64th Regiment of Foot from seizing stores and ammunition hidden in North Salem. A few months later, in May 1775, a group of prominent merchants with ties to Salem, including Francis Cabot, William Pynchon, Thomas Barnard, E. A. Holyoke and William Pickman, felt the need to publish a statement retracting what some interpreted as Loyalist leanings and to profess their dedication to the Colonial cause. Salem Harbor, oil on canvas, Fitz Hugh Lane, 1853. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. During the Revolution, the town became a center for privateering. Although the documentation is incomplete, about 1,700 Letters of Marque, issued on a per-voyage basis, were granted during the American Revolution. Nearly 800 vessels were commissioned as privateers and are credited with capturing or destroying about 600 British ships. During the War of 1812, privateering resumed. Trade with the Pacific and Africa Further information: East India Marine Society Following the Revolution, many ships used as privateers were too large for short voyages in the coasting trade, and their owners determined to open new avenues of trade to distant countries. The young men of the town, fresh from service on the armed ships of Salem, were eager to embark in such ventures. Captain Nathaniel Silsbee, his first mate Charles Derby, and second mate Richard J. Cleveland were not yet twenty years old when they set sail on a nineteen-month voyage that was perhaps the first from the newly independent America to the East Indies. In 1795, Captain Jonathan Carnes set sail for Sumatra in the Malay Archipelago on his secret voyage for pepper; nothing was heard from him until eighteen months later he entered with a cargo of pepper in bulk, the first to be so imported into the country, and which sold at the extraordinary profit of seven hundred per cent. The Empress of China, formerly a privateer, was refitted as the first American ship to sail from New York to China. By 1790, Salem had become the sixth largest city in the country, and a world-famous seaport—particularly in the China Trade, along with exporting codfish to Europe and the West Indies, importing sugar and molasses from the West Indies, tea from China, and products depicted on the city seal from the East Indies – in particular Sumatran pepper. Salem ships also visited Africa – Zanzibar in particular, Russia, Japan, and Australia. The neutrality of the United States was tested during the Napoleonic Wars. After the Chesapeake–Leopard Affair, Thomas Jefferson was faced with a decision to make regarding the situation at hand. In the end, he chose an economic option: the Embargo Act of 1807. Jefferson essentially closed all the ports overnight, putting a damper on the seaport town of Salem. The embargo of 1807 was the starting point on the path to the War of 1812 with Great Britain. Both Britain and France imposed trade restrictions in order to weaken each other's economies. This also had the effect of disrupting American trade and testing the United States' neutrality. As time went on, harassment of American ships by the British Navy increased. This included impressment and seizures of American men and goods. Map of Salem circa 1820 The book The Salem-India Story by Vanita Shastri narrates the adventures of the Salem seamen who connected the far corners of the globe through trade. This period (1788–1845) marks the beginning of US international relations, long before the 21st century wave of globalization. It reveals the global trade connections that Salem had established with faraway lands, which were a source of livelihood and prosperity for many. Charles Endicott, master of Salem merchantman Friendship, returned in 1831 to report Sumatran natives had plundered his ship, murdering the first officer and two crewmen. Following public outcry, President Andrew Jackson ordered the Potomac on the First Sumatran Expedition, which departed New York on August 19, 1831. This also led to the mission of diplomatist Edmund Roberts, who negotiated a treaty with Said bin Sultan, Sultan of Muscat and Oman, on 21 September 1833. In 1837, the sultan moved his main place of residence to Zanzibar and welcomed Salem citizen Richard Waters as an United States consul of the early years. Legacy of the East Indies and Old China Trade Further information: Peabody Academy of Science The Old China Trade left a significant mark in two historic districts, Chestnut Street District, part of the Samuel McIntire Historic District containing 407 buildings, and the Salem Maritime National Historic Site, consisting of 12 historic structures and about 9 acres (36,000 m2) of land along the waterfront in Salem. Elias Hasket Derby was among the wealthiest and most celebrated of post-Revolutionary merchants in Salem, and owner of the Grand Turk, the first New England vessel to trade directly with China.Thomas Perkins was his supercargo and established strong ties with the Chinese and garnered the Forbes fortune through his illegal opium sales. Salem was incorporated as a city on March 23, 1836, and adopted a city seal in 1839 with the motto "Divitis Indiae usque ad ultimum sinum", Latin for "To the rich East Indies until the last lap " Nathaniel Hawthorne was overseer of the port from 1846 until 1849. He worked in the Customs House  near Pickering Wharf, his setting for the beginning of The Scarlet Letter. In 1858, an amusement park was established at Salem Willows, a peninsula jutting into the harbor. Prosperity left the city with a wealth of fine architecture, including Federal-style mansions designed by one of America's first architects, Samuel McIntire, for whom the city's largest historic district is named. These homes and mansions now comprise the greatest concentrations of notable pre-1900 domestic structures in the United States. Shipping declined throughout the 19th century. Salem and its silting harbor were increasingly eclipsed by Boston and New York. Consequently, the city turned to manufacturing. Industries included tanneries, shoe factories and the Naumkeag Steam Cotton Company. More than 400 homes burned in the Great Salem Fire of 1914, leaving 3,500 families homeless from a blaze that began in the Korn Leather Factory. The historic concentration of Federal architecture on Chestnut Street were spared. Air Station Salem and the National Guard Coast Guard Air Station Salem patch Coast Guard Air Station Salem was established on February 15, 1935 when the U.S. Coast Guard established a new seaplane facility in Salem because there was no space to expand the Gloucester Air Station at Ten Pound Island. Coast Guard Air Station Salem was located on Winter Island, an extension of Salem Neck which juts out into Salem Harbor. Search and rescue, hunting for derelicts and medical evacuations were the Station's primary areas of responsibility. During the first year of operation, Salem crews performed 26 med-evac missions. They flew in all kinds of weather, and the radio direction capabilities of the aircraft were of significant value in locating vessels in distress. During World War II, air crews from Salem flew neutrality patrols along the coast, and the Air Station roster grew to 37 aircraft. Anti-submarine patrols were flown on a regular basis. In October 1944, Air Station Salem was officially designated as the first Air-Sea Rescue station on the eastern seaboard. The Martin PBM Mariner, a hold-over from the war, became the primary rescue aircraft. In the mid-1950s helicopters came, as did Grumman HU-16 Albatross amphibious flying boats (UFs). The air station's missions included search and rescue, law enforcement, counting migratory waterfowl for the U.S. Biological Survey and assisting icebound islands by delivering provisions. The station's surviving facilities are part of Salem's Winter Island Marine Park. Salem Harbor was deep enough to host a seadrome with three sea lanes, offering a variety of take-off headings irrespective of wind direction unless there was a strong steady wind from the east. This produced large waves that swept into the mouth of the harbor, making water operations difficult. When the seadrome was too rough, returning amphibian aircraft would use Naval Auxiliary Air Facility Beverly. Salem Air Station moved to Cape Cod in 1970. In 2011 the City of Salem made official the plans for the tip of the 30-acre (12 ha) Winter Island Park and squared off against residents who are against bringing two power generating windmills to the tip of Winter Island. The Renewable Energy Task Force, along with Energy and Sustainability Manager Paul Marquis, have recommended the construction of a 1.5-megawatt power turbine at the tip of Winter Island, which is the furthest point from residences and where the winds are the strongest. The nearly 30-acre park has been open to the public since the early 1970s. In 2011 a master plan was developed with help from the planning and design firm The Cecil Group of Boston and Bioengineering Group of Salem, and the City of Salem paid $45,000 in federal money. In the long term the projected cost to rehabilitate just the barracks is $1.5 million. But in the short term, there are multiple lower-cost items like a proposed $15,000 for a kayak dock or $50,000 to relocate and improve the bathhouse. This is a very important project since Fort Pickering guarded Salem Harbor as far back as the 17th century. Designation as National Guard Birthplace First Muster, Spring 1637, Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1637 the first muster was held on Salem Common, where for the first time a regiment of militia drilled for the common defense of a multi-community area, thus laying the foundation for what became the Army National Guard. The General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1637 ordered the organization of the Colony's militia companies into the North, South and East Regiments. The colonists adopted the English militia system which obligated all males between the ages of 16 and 60 to possess arms and participate in the defense of the community. On August 19, 2010, Governor of Massachusetts Deval Patrick signed HB1145, "An Act Designating the City of Salem as the Birthplace of the National Guard." This as later approved by the U.S. House of Representatives in March 2012, and was signed into law by President Barack Obama on the 10th of January 2013 signed executive order HR1339 "which designates the City of Salem, Mass., as the birthplace of the U.S. National Guard." Each April, the Second Corps of Cadets gather in front of St. Peter's Episcopal Church, where their founder, Stephen Abbott, is buried. They lay a wreath, play "Taps" and fire a 21-gun salute. In another annual commemoration, soldiers gather at Old Salem Armory to honor soldiers who were killed in the Battles of Lexington and Concord. On April 14, 2012, Salem celebrated the 375th anniversary of the first muster on Salem Common with more than 1,000 troops taking part in ceremonies and a parade. World record for Federal furniture In 2011, a mahogany side chair with carving done by Samuel McIntire sold at auction for $662,500. The price set a world record for Federal furniture. McIntire was one of the first architects in the United States, and his work represents a prime example of early Federal-style architecture. Elias Hasket Derby, Salem's wealthiest merchant and thought to be America's first millionaire, and his wife, Elizabeth Crowninshield, purchased the set of eight chairs from McIntire. The Samuel McIntire Historic District represents the greatest concentration of 17th and 18th century domestic structures anywhere in America. It includes McIntyre commissions such as the Peirce-Nichols House and Hamilton Hall. The Witch House or Jonathan Corwin House (circa 1642) is also located in the district. Samuel McIntyre's house and workshop were located at 31 Summer Street in what is now the Samuel McIntyre Historic District. Film, literature,and television in Salem Salem Secret Underground:The History of the Tunnels in the City goes over a grand conspiracy that was engineered by the son of America's first millionaire paid for by many of our country's most influential politicians during the Adam's administration that involved 3 miles of tunnels to avoid paying duties on imports. Dowgin, Christopher Jon Luke (2009). Salem Secret Underground: The History of the Tunnels in the City. Salem, MA: Salem House Press. p. 314. ISBN 978-0-9836665-5-4. In June 1970, Bewitched filmed on location in Salem. The Europeans, an Academy Award-nominated adaptation of the Henry James novel, starring Lee Remick, filmed in 1978 and was released in 1979. Three Sovereigns for Sarah, PBS drama starring Vanessa Redgrave, 1985 Hocus Pocus, Disney's Halloween comedy-drama film starring Bette Midler, Sarah Jessica Parker, and Kathy Najimy. The daytime scenes were filmed in Salem while the nighttime scenes were filmed at Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California. The Travel Channel, "Places of Mystery: Witch City," 2000; "Ghost Adventures," 2010 In 2007, PBS's aired a documentary titled "Hand of God" regarding the sexual abuse and cover up of a Salem priest serving at St. James Church in the 1960s. In 2008, scenes from the film Bride Wars were filmed here. An episode of the TLC series What Not to Wear was filmed in Salem in 2009. The 2012 Rob Zombie movie The Lords of Salem was set and filmed in Salem. Some interior and street scenes for 2013's American Hustle were filmed on Federal St. in Salem, outside the Essex Superior Court House and Old Granite Courthouse. Historic images of Salem One of Many Sealed Tunnel Entrances in Salem Salem Depot, 1910 Peabody House, c. 1905 Salem Harbor in 1907 Lafayette Street in 1910 Naumkeag Mills, c. 1910 Roger Williams House (The Witch House) c. 1910 Sampler (needlework) made in Salem in 1791. Art Institute of Chicago textile collection. Pickering House, c. 1905 Essex Street, c. 1920 Town House Square, 1891 Geography and transportation The Salem Ferry approaching its dock off Blaney Street Salem is located at 42°31'1?N 70°53'55?W (42.516845, -70.898503). According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 18.1 square miles (47 km2), of which 8.1 square miles (21 km2) is land and 9.9 square miles (26 km2), or 55.09%, is water. Salem lies on Massachusetts Bay between Salem Harbor, which divides the city from much of neighboring Marblehead to the southeast, and Beverly Harbor, which divides the city from Beverly along with the Danvers River, which feeds into the harbor. Between the two harbors lies Salem Neck and Winter Island, which are divided from each other by Cat Cove, Smith Pool (located between the two land causeways to Winter Island), and Juniper Cove. The city is further divided by Collins Cove and the inlet to the North River. The Forest River flows through the south end of town, along with Strong Water Brook, which feeds Spring Pond at the town's southwest corner. The town has several parks, as well as conservation land along the Forest River and Camp Lion, which lies east of Spring Pond. The city is divided by its natural features into several small neighborhoods. The Salem Neck neighborhood lies northeast of downtown, and North Salem lies to the west of it, on the other side of the North River. South Salem is south of the South River, lying mostly along the banks of Salem Harbor southward. Downtown Salem lies 15 miles (24 km) northeast of Boston, 16 miles (26 km) southwest of Gloucester and Cape Ann, and 19 miles (31 km) southeast of Lawrence, the other county seat of Essex County. Salem is bordered by Beverly to the north, Danvers to the northwest, Peabody to the west, Lynn to the south, Swampscott to the southeast, and Marblehead to the southeast. The town's water rights extend along a channel into Massachusetts Bay between the water rights of Marblehead and Beverly. Veterans Memorial Bridge between Salem and Beverly The connection between Salem and Beverly is made across the Danvers River and Beverly Harbor by three bridges, the Kernwood Bridge to the west, and a railroad bridge and the Essex Bridge, from the land between Collins Cove and the North River, to the east. The Veterans Memorial Bridge carries Massachusetts Route 1A across the river. Route 1A passes through the eastern side of the city, through South Salem towards Swampscott. For much of its length in the city, it is coextensive with Route 114, which goes north from Marblehead before merging with Route 1A, and then heading northwest from downtown towards Lawrence. Route 107 also passes through town, entering from Lynn in the southwest corner of the city before heading towards its intersection with Route 114 and terminating at Route 1A. There is no highway access within the city; the nearest highway access to Route 128 is along Route 114 in neighboring Peabody. Several MBTA Bus routes pass through the city. Salem has a station on the Newburyport/Rockport Line of the MBTA Commuter Rail. The railroad lines are also connected to an abandoned portion of the freight lines which lead into Peabody, and a former line into Marblehead has been converted into a bike path. The nearest small airport is Beverly Municipal Airport, and the nearest national and international service can be reached at Boston's Logan International Airport. North Shore Medical Center, Salem North Shore Medical Center, (NSMC) is located on the North Shore of Boston, Massachusetts in Salem, Massachusetts and is the second largest community hospital system in Massachusetts. It offers comprehensive medical and surgical services and includes emergency/trauma departments, advanced cardiac surgery and a birthplace. It includes NSMC Salem Hospital and NSMC Union Hospital, as well as outpatient care and urgent care. NSMC's Medical Staff includes nearly 600 affiliated physicians representing primary care, family practice and 50 additional sub-specialties. North Shore Medical Center is a general medical and surgical hospital which has 395 beds. The hospital had 19,467 admissions in the latest year for which data are available. It performed 4,409 annual inpatient and 7,955 outpatient surgeries. Its emergency room had 90,149 visits for 2012. A helipad at North Shore Medical Center is a helicopter transportation hub, with multiple daily flights to hospitals all over Boston. Captain John Bertram (1796–1882) lived in Salem, Massachusetts and is the founder of Salem Hospital, which was later renamed North Shore Medical Center. In 1873, Captain John Bertram gave a gift of $25,000 in cash, plus a brick mansion on Charter Street to create Salem Hospital. From the original building on Charter Street, Salem Hospital moved to the current location on Highland Avenue in 1917. After John Bertram died in March 1882, his widow donated their home, John Bertram Mansion, a mansion built in the High Style Italianate with brick and brownstone for materials, built at 370 Essex Street  and this became the Salem Public Library. In addition, John Bertram House is now a home for the elderly. The Salem Ferry The Nathaniel Bowditch is a 92-foot (28 m) high-speed catamaran that travels from Salem to Boston in 50 minutes from May to October and had its maiden voyage on June 22, 2006. The Salem Ferry is named after Nathaniel Bowditch, who was from Salem and wrote the American Practical Navigator. Ridership increased every year from 2006 to 2010, when it peaked with 89,000, but in 2011 service was cut back because of the dramatic rise in fuel prices. The ferry was purchased by the City of Salem with the use of grant money that covered 90 percent of the $2.1 million purchase price. Because of the cutback in service during the 2011 season, Mayor Kim Driscoll is now seeking a new operator who can run the ferry seven days a week from May to October. For the 2012 season Boston Harbor Cruises will be taking over the running of the Salem Ferry with seven-day service and a Monday to Friday 7 a.m. commuter ferry to Boston. The Salem Ferry will be running seven days a week for the 2012 season starting the first weekend in June and going through to Halloween. Boston Harbor Cruises, the contractor that operates the city's commuter ferry to Boston, runs their largest and fastest vessel between Salem and Hingham for the last two weekends in October. The company's high-speed ferry service to Provincetown concludes in October, freeing up its 600-passenger boat for service between Salem and Hingham. The ferry ride between Hingham and Salem takes one hour. With traffic, especially around Halloween, the drive between Salem and Hingham could be three hours or more. For the 2013 season, service is expected to start in the last week of May. The Salem City councilors approved a five-year contract with Boston Harbor Cruises to operate the city's commuter ferry from 2013 to 2017. Also new for the 2013 season, Boston Harbor Cruises will offer a 20 percent discount to Salem residents for non-commuter tickets. The City of Salem has approved a seasonal restaurant with a liquor license at The Salem Ferry dock to be operated by Boston Harbor Cruises. The plan is to build a 600 sq. foot building plus patio seating. Salem bike sharing program In Salem, there is a program called Salem Spins, that offers bicycles, free of charge, for use around the city. The program started in 2011 with a fleet of 20 bicycles and is split between two hubs, at Salem State University and downtown, near the Hawthorne Hotel. In 2011, Salem was awarded $25,000 from the Green Communities grant program, which went toward the purchase of the bike fleet. Fees are charged to a participant's credit card only if they return the bike late or damaged. Right now, Salem Spins is open only to people over the age of 18. But the city is considering changing that, Marquis said, as well as producing a bike map for participants and offering a "seasonal pass" where bikes could be used for more than one day at a time. Electric car charge program Salem has eight stations where drivers can charge their electric cars. Four are located at the Museum Place Mall near the Peabody Essex Museum and the other four are in the South Harbor garage across the street from the Salem Waterfront Hotel. The program started in January 2013 and will be free of charge for two years, allowing people to charge their electric cars and other electric vehicles for up to six hours. This program was paid for by a grant from the state of Massachusetts due to Salem's status as a Massachusetts Green Community. Salem Senior Center The 20,000-square-foot Salem Senior Center was finalized in March 2013 by the Mayor of Salem & the Salem city councilors it is official, Salem will be getting a new state-of-the-art senior center - a $4.9 million bond — the final OK needed to build a community/senior center as part of a private/public development at Boston and Bridge streets. The Salem Senior Center will also include parking for 374 automobiles. Waterfront redevelopment Map of Salem and Harbor, 1883 The first step in the redevelopment was in 2006, when the State of Massachusetts gave Salem $1,000,000. The bulk of the money - $750,000 - was earmarked for acquisition of the Blaney Street landing, the private, 2-acre (8,100 m2) site off Derby Street used by the ferry, and Salem Harbor. Another $200,000 was approved for the design of the new Salem wharf, a large pier planned for the landing, which officials said could be used by small cruise ships, commercial vessels and fishing boats. In June 2012, the $1.75 million was awarded by the state of Massachusetts and will launch a first phase of dredging and construction of a 100-foot (30 m) extension of the pier; a harborwalk to improve pedestrian access; and other lighting, landscaping and paving improvements. Dredging will allow the city to attract other ferries, excursion vessels and cruise ships of up to 250 feet (76 m). In October 2010, Mayor Driscoll announced that the city would formally acquire the Blaney Street parcel from Dominion Energy, paving the way for the Salem Wharf project. The City of Salem secured $1.25 million from the Massachusetts Seaport Advisory Council and $2.5 million in federal grant dollars to move forward with the construction of the project. The city acquired the parcel with the help of a $1.7 million grant received from the Seaport Advisory Council. The City of Salem's plans call for a total build-out of the current Blaney Street pier, known as the Salem Wharf project. When finished, the Blaney Street pier will be home to small to medium-sized cruise ships, commercial vessels and the Salem Ferry. This project is fully engineered and permitted. In 2010, in early phase work to be finished for the 2011 season, a contractor was running underground utility cables and erecting an interim terminal building that will be used by the Salem Ferry, replacing the current trailer. The building will have an indoor bathroom — a first at the ferry landing — along with a waiting room and possibly an outdoor area with awnings. Also new for 2011 is a paved lot with about 140 parking spaces replacing the existing dirt parking lot. Also in 2011, construction crews were building a long seawall at the Blaney Street landing, which runs from the edge of the ferry dock back toward Derby Street and along an inner harbor. This is one of the early and key pieces of the Salem Pier, which the city hopes to have completed by 2014 and is the key to eventually bring cruise ships to Salem. At the end of the 2011 season of the Salem Ferry, in the late fall of 2011, after the ferry season ended, contractors were to start building the first section of the T-shaped, 350-foot (110 m) pier. Work on that phase was scheduled to be completed by the fall of 2012. As of April 2011, the City of Salem had secured half of the $20 million and still needed to secure about $10 million in state and federal funds to complete this waterfront pier. Salem Coal Plant site Salem Harbor Station in 2012 In May 2011 and after years of legal battles, protests and one recent fatal accident has led the owner of the Salem Harbor Power Station to announce it will close down the facility permanently. Salem Harbor Station is a 60-year-old coal- and oil-burning power plant that is owned by Dominion of Virginia and have said with the approval of ISO New England, the 60-year-old coal and oil-fired plant will close for good in June 2014. The City of Salem was awarded a $200,000 grant from the Clean Energy Center prior to the closure of the plant and with the closure scheduled for June 2014, this grant money is being used to plan for the eventual re-use of this property. The City of Salem has been reaching out to state and federal officials to ask for their cooperation and assistance in planning for the future and money to clean up the Salem Harbor Power Plant 62-acre site. Footprint Power, a startup New Jersey-based energy company, announced on the June 29, 2012, that it had signed an agreement to acquire Salem Harbor Station power plant from Dominion Energy of Virginia. Footprint said it plans to remediate a 63-acre waterfront site that has towering smokestacks, a coal pile and oil tanks. A city study estimated cleanup costs at more than $50 million. The plan is to develop a natural gas plant on one-third of the property, reportedly a site along Fort Avenue near the city's ferry landing. The remainder of the waterfront property eventually will be used for commercial and industrial redevelopment, the company said. "The transition will not only stabilize our property tax base, but also provide cleaner, more efficient and reliable energy. Footprint said its plans are consistent with the recommendations of a city study completed earlier this year on the future use of the power plant site. The City of Salem will require Footprint to demolish the existing plant and stacks, we will restore some 30 to 40 acres of our waterfront to its vibrant and prosperous past." Mayor Kim Driscoll said she has not had "detailed" talks yet with Footprint but is encouraged by discussions so far. As of December 2013, there are many appeals under way from various groups who do not want the plant built. The main opponent fighting in court is the Conservation Law Foundation, a leading environmental advocacy group intent on blocking the plant from being built. Demographics See also: List of Massachusetts locations by per capita income Historical population Year Pop. ±% 1635 900 — 1765 4,427 +391.9% 1790 7,921 +78.9% 1800 9,457 +19.4% 1810 12,613 +33.4% 1820 12,731 +0.9% 1830 13,895 +9.1% 1840 15,082 +8.5% 1850 20,264 +34.4% 1860 22,252 +9.8% 1870 24,117 +8.4% 1880 27,563 +14.3% 1890 30,801 +11.7% 1900 35,956 +16.7% 1910 43,697 +21.5% 1920 42,529 -2.7% 1930 43,353 +1.9% 1940 41,213 -4.9% 1950 41,880 +1.6% 1960 39,211 -6.4% 1970 40,556 +3.4% 1980 38,220 -5.8% 1990 38,091 -0.3% 2000 40,407 +6.1% 2010 41,340 +2.3% 2014 42,824 +3.6% * = population estimate. Source: United States Census records and Population Estimates Program data. Source: U.S. Decennial Census As of the census of 2010, there were 41,340 people, 19,130 households, and 9,708 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,986.0 people per square mile (1,926.1/km²). There were 18,175 housing units at an average density of 2,242.7 per square mile (866.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 81.5% White, 4.9% African American, 0.22% Native American, 2.6% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 6.74% from other races, and 2.47% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15.6% of the population (9.1% Dominican, 2.9% Puerto Rican, 0.5% Mexican, 0.3% Guatemalan). Non-Hispanic Whites were 75.9% of the population in 2010, compared to 95.9% in 1980. There were 17,492 households out of which 24.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.8% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 44.5% were non-families. 34.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.95. In the city the population was spread out with 20.2% under the age of 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 33.4% from 25 to 44, 21.9% from 45 to 64, and 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 86.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $44,033, and the median income for a family was $55,635. Males had a median income of $38,563 versus $31,374 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,857. About 6.3% of families and 9.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.2% of those under age 18 and 7.9% of those age 65 or over. Education Salem State University Logo of Salem State University Salem State University is the largest of the nine schools comprising the state university system in Massachusetts (the five University of Massachusetts campuses are a separate system), with 7,500 undergraduates and 2,500 graduate students; its five campuses encompass 115 acres (0.47 km2) and include 33 buildings. The Salem State Foundation hosts an annual lecture series, featuring high-profile speakers from around the world. was originally built in the 1950s and in January 2014 a $18,600,000 project was announced with development. The university was founded in 1854 as the Salem Normal School (for teacher training) based on the educational principles espoused by Horace Mann, considered to be the "Father of American Public Education." Salem State University enrolls over 10,000 undergraduate and graduate students representing 27 states and 57 foreign countries, and is one of the largest state universities in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The university also offers Continuing Education courses for credit or non-credit. Situated on five campuses totaling 115 acres (0.47 km2). Currently, the university houses 2,000 students in its five residence facilities. In 2013 the $74 million, 122,000-square-foot library is going to open on the Salem State University campus. The new library will have more than 150 public computers and 1,000 seats of study space, from tables and desks to lounge chairs scattered throughout the building. On July 28, 2010 Governor of Massachusetts Deval Patrick signed into law a bill that transforms Salem State College into Salem State University. Salem State University plans to build a $36 to $42 million dorm for 350 to 400 students. Construction starts in the spring of 2014. In April 2014, Salem State University announced a $25,000,000 fund, and at the time of the announcement, there was already $15,000,000 committed from donations and the money will be used for a variety of things from expanding international study programs, more faculty, brand new computers, scholarships and continued support of professional development for the staff. Primary and secondary education Public elementary schools include the Bates, Bentley, Carlton, Horace Mann, Nathaniel Bowditch, Saltonstall and Witchcraft Heights schools. Collins Middle School is located on Highland Avenue. Nathaniel Bowditch School, and Salem High School are located on Wilson Street. Salem Academy Charter School is also a public school. Private schools are also located in the city, including two independent, alternative schools, The Phoenix School and the Greenhouse School. In late 2007 and early 2008, the city's public school system garnered regional and even national attention after officials announced a $4.7 million budget shortfall that threatened the jobs of teachers and other staff members. The Massachusetts General Court passed legislation, and residents raised enough money, that averted teacher layoffs. Several dozen support workers were still laid off. Police were investigating what happened to the money in a search for criminal violations of the law. Salem also once had a very strong Roman Catholic school system. Once home to almost a dozen schools, the last school in the city, St. Joseph School, closed in July 2009 after over 100 years of providing Catholic education. St. James High School, St. Chretienne Academy, St. Chretienne Grammar School and St. Mary's School closed in 1971, St. James Grammar School closed in 1972, St. Thomas the Apostle School closed in 1973, St. Anne School closed in 1976, St. John the Baptist School closed in 1977 and St. Joseph High School closed in 1980. Tourism See also: Chestnut Street District and Salem Maritime National Historic Site Historic homes The Pickman House, built circa 1664, abuts the Witch Memorial and Burying Point Cemetery, the second oldest burying ground in the United States. The Gedney House is a historic house museum built circa 1665 and is the 2nd oldest house in Salem. One of the most popular houses in Salem is The Witch House, the only structure in Salem with direct ties to the Salem witch trials of 1692. The Witch House is owned and operated by the City of Salem as a historic house museum. Hamilton Hall is located on Chestnut Street, where many grand mansions can be traced to the roots of the Old China Trade. Hamilton Hall was built in 1805 by Samuel McIntire and is considered one of his best pieces. It was declared a National Historic Landmark by the National Park Service in 1970. Witch-related tourism One of Daniel Low's witch spoons, circa 1891 Tourism is the backbone of Salem's economy. Tourism based on the 1692 witch trials dates back to at least the first half of the 20th century, when dry goods merchant Daniel Low sold souvenir spoons with witch images. Such tourism expanded significantly in the 1970s, when the television situation comedy Bewitched filmed several episodes in the city. Witch-related tourism expanded significantly in the 1990s with the movie Hocus Pocus, and the city added an official "Haunted Happenings" celebration during the October tourist season. Court Trial of Witches In 2007, the city launched the Haunted Passport program which offers visitors discounts and benefits from local tourist attractions and retailers from October to April. The goal of the program is to get visitors to come back to Salem after Halloween and experience businesses that may not be directly tied to Halloween. Thousands watched in 2007 as Mayor Kim Driscoll started a new trend with a massive fireworks display that kicked off at 10:00 pm on Halloween. In recent years, tourism has been an occasional source of debate in the city, with some residents arguing the city should downplay witch tourism and market itself as a more upscale cultural center. In 2005, the conflict came to a head over plans by the cable television network TV Land to erect a bronze statue of Elizabeth Montgomery, who played the comic witch "Samantha" in the 1960s series Bewitched. A few special episodes of the series were actually filmed in Salem, and TV Land said that the statue commemorated the 35th anniversary of those episodes. The statue was sculpted by StudioEIS under the direction of brothers Elliott and Ivan Schwartz. Many felt the statue was good fun and appropriate to a city that promotes itself as "The Witch City", and contains a street named "Witch Way". Others objected to the use of public property for what was transparently commercial promotion. Other tourist attractions The Friendship replica docked off of Derby Street In 2000, the replica tall ship Friendship of Salem was finished and sailed to Salem Harbor, where she sits today. The Friendship of Salem is a reconstruction of a 171-foot (52 m) three-masted East Indiaman trading ship, originally built in 1797, which traveled the world over a dozen times and returned to Salem after each voyage with goods from all over the world. The original was taken by the British during the War of 1812, then stripped and sold in pieces. In 2006, with the assistance of a 1.6 million dollar grant and additional funds provided by the City of Salem, Mayor Driscoll launched The Nathaniel Bowditch, a 92-foot catamaran with a top speed of 30 knots which makes the trip between Salem and Boston in just under an hour. Waterfront redevelopment - The first step in the redevelopment was in 2006, when the State of Massachusetts gave Salem $1,000,000. Bowditch, who was born in Salem and had a home on North Street, is considered the founder of modern maritime navigation. His book, Bowditch's American Practical Navigator, first published in 1802, is still carried on board every commissioned U.S. naval vessel. The original Fame was a fast Chebacco fishing schooner that was reborn as a privateer when war broke out in the summer of 1812. She was arguably the first American privateer to bring home a prize, and she made 20 more captures before being wrecked in the Bay of Fundy in 1814. The new Fame is a full-scale replica of this famous schooner. Framed and planked of white oak and trunnel-fastened in the traditional manner, the replica of Fame was launched in 2003. She is now based at Salem's Pickering Wharf Marina, where she takes the paying public for cruises on Salem Sound. Salem Harborwalk opened in July 2010 to celebrate the rebirth of the Salem waterfront as a source of recreation for visitors as well as the local community. The 1,100-foot (340 m) walkway extends from the area of the Salem Fire Station to the Salem Waterfront Hotel. The Peabody Essex Museum The Peabody Essex Museum is a leading museum of Asian art and culture and early American maritime trade and whaling; its collections of Indian, Japanese, Korean, and Chinese art, and in particular Chinese export porcelain, are among the finest in the country. Founded in 1799, it is the oldest continuously operating museum in the United States. The museum owns and exhibits a number of historic houses in downtown Salem. In 2003, it completed a massive $100 million renovation and expansion, designed by architect Moshe Safdie, and moved a 200-year-old 16-room Chinese home from Xiuning County in southeastern China to the grounds of the museum. In 2011, the Peabody Essex Museum announced it had raised $550 million with plans to raise an additional $100 million by 2016. The Boston Globe reported this was the largest capital campaign in the museum's history vaulting the Peabody Essex into the top tier of major art museums. The Peabody Essex Museum trustees co-chairs Sam Byrne and Sean Healey with board president Robert Shapiro led the campaign.$200 to $250 million will fund the museum's 175,000-square-foot expansion bringing the total square footage to 425,000 square feet. Pioneer Village The Misery Islands which are a nature reserve were established in 1935 and located in Salem Sound and are managed by the Trustees of Reservations. The islands' name come from shipbuilder Robert Moulton who was stranded on the islands during a winter storm in the 1620s. The island, in the past, has been home to a club with a golf course and subsequently about two dozen cottages. The island is now uninhabited. The Pioneer Village, created in 1930, was America's first living-history museum. The site features a three-acre re-creation of a Puritan village and allows visitors the opportunity to participate in activities from the lives of Salem's earliest English settlers. The Old Salem Jail, an active correctional facility until 1991, once housed captured British soldiers from the War of 1812. It contains the main jail building (built in 1813, renovated in 1884), the jail keeper's house (1813) and a barn (also about 1813). The jail was shuttered in 1991 when Essex County opened its new facility in Middleton. In 2010, a $12 million renovation was completed. One feature of the reconstruction is the jail keeper's house, a three-story brick, Federal-period building originally built in 1813. The project went into a long phase of stagnation when in 1999 the county government was dissolved, resulting in the sale of Salem Jail by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to the City of Salem for $1. The Old Salem Jail complex was renamed 50 Saint Peter Street and is now private property, with private residences. Salem Willows Salem Willows is an oceanfront neighborhood and amusement park. It is named for the European white willow trees planted there in 1801 to form a shaded walk for patients convalescing at a nearby smallpox hospital. The area became a public park in 1858, and in the twentieth century became a summer destination for residents of Boston's North Shore, many of whom escaped the heat of the city on newly popular streetcars. The beaches are also a common place to watch the 4th of July fireworks since you can see three sets of fireworks; Salem, Beverly, and Marblehead. The Willows also has a famous popcorn stand, Hobbs, which is known around the North Shore as one of the best places to get popcorn and ice cream. Points of interest Naturalization ceremony on the stairs of the Custom House, Salem Maritime National Historic Site See also: National Register of Historic Places listings in Salem, Massachusetts Crowninshield-Bentley House (c. 1727–30) Gedney House (c. 1665), one of the oldest homes in Salem; located on High Street and Summer Street House of the Seven Gables (1668) John Tucker Daland House (1851) Joseph Story House McIntire Historic District, greatest concentration of 17th and 18th century domestic structures in the U.S. The First Church in Salem, Unitarian Universalist, founded in 1629. Misery Islands Nathaniel Bowditch House (c. 1805), home of the founder of modern navigation Nathaniel Hawthorne Birthplace (c. 1730–45) Peabody Essex Museum (1799), oldest continually operated museum in America Phillips Library Pickering House (c. 1651), Broad Street Pioneer Village (c. 1930), Forest River Park Ropes Mansion (late 1720s) Salem Athenaeum Salem Common Salem Maritime National Historic Site, the only remaining intact waterfront from the U.S. age of sail Salem Willows Park (1858), a small oceanfront amusement park Stephen Phillips Memorial Trust House (1800 & 1821) Winter Island, park and historic point of the U.S. Coast Guard in WW2 for U-boat patrol The Witch House, the home of the Salem witch trials investigator Jonathan Corwin, and the only building still standing in Salem with direct ties to the witch trials Salem points of interest The House of the Seven Gables Gallows Hill Park. Popular legend places the execution of the Salem Witches near this site. The Pickman House, built circa 1664, believed to be Salem's oldest surviving building The Gedney House (1665) on High Street Salem Common bandshell in 2005 Hamilton Hall (1805), 9 Chestnut Street Peirce Nichols House (1782), 80 Federal Street Phillips House (1800), 34 Chestnut Street John Ward House (1684) Notable people Nehemiah Adams (1806–1878), clergyman and author. Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922), inventor of telephone Frank Weston Benson (1862–1951), impressionist artist. John Prentiss Benson (1865–1947), architect and maritime artist William Bentley (1759–1819), Unitarian minister, Salem diarist Nathaniel Bowditch (1773–1838), mathematician and navigator. Rick Brunson, former NBA player William Mansfield Buffum, member of the Arizona Territorial Legislature Timothy Burgess, entomologist and zoologist Laurie Cabot, Witchcraft high priestess and author Robert Ellis Cahill (1934–2005), sheriff, historian and author Roger Conant (c.1592–1679), founder of Salem Crowninshield family, Boston Brahmins who later helped settle Salem. Frederick M. Davenport, former US Congressman Elias Hasket Derby (1739–1799), merchant, first millionaire Joseph Horace Eaton (1815–1896), artist and military officer John Endecott (1588–1665), governor Thomas Gardner (c.1592–1674), co-founder of Salem John Hathorne (1641–1717), the "Hanging Judge" in Salem witch trials William Hathorne (c. 1576–1650), early businessman and political leader Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804–1864), writer Jeff Juden, major league baseball pitcher Frederick W. Lander (1821–1862), Civil War general, wagon trail and railroad surveyor, poet John Larch, actor (1914–2005). Dudley Leavitt (1720–1762), early Harvard-educated Congregational minister, New Hampshire native, married to Mary Pickering, Salem's Leavitt Street named for him. Leavitt was minister of a splinter church of Salem's First Church. Upon Leavitt's untimely death in 1762, the church elected to call itself 'the Church of which the Rev. Mr. Dudley Leavitt was late Pastor. Mary Lou Lord, singer/songwriter; grew up in Salem Samuel McIntire (1757–1811), architect and woodcarver. Rob Oppenheim, professional golfer Charles Grafton Page (1812–1868), electrical inventor George Swinnerton Parker (1866–1952), founder of Parker Brothers Samuel Parris (1653–1720), minister Benjamin Peirce (1809–1880), a mathematician and logician that was born in Salem and was director of the U.S. Coast Survey from 1867 to 1874. Timothy Pickering (1745–1829), secretary of state. Benjamin Pickman, Jr. (1763–1843), early Salem merchant for whom Salem's Pickman Street is named Dudley Leavitt Pickman (1779–1846), state legislator Sarah Parker Remond (1826–1894), abolitionist. Ernest R. Redmond (1883-1966), United States Army officer and Chief of the National Guard Bureau. He was educated in Salem and became a real estate agent. In 1916 he served on the Mexican border during the Pancho Villa Expedition. Aaron Richmond (1895–1965), impresario and artist manager Brian St. Pierre, quarterback for the Carolina Panthers Samuel Sewall (1652–1730), magistrate Samuel Skelton (c. 1584–1634), first pastor of the First Church in Salem, the original Puritan church in North America Steve Thomas, former host of PBS's This Old House Bob Vila, craftsman Thomas A. Watson, assistant to Alexander Graham Bell, his name was the first phrase ever uttered over a telephone. Jack Welch, former chairman and CEO of General Electric; grew up in Salem and attended Salem High School Roger Williams (1603–1683), theologian Notable residents of Salem Frank Weston Benson Nathaniel Bowditch Elias Hasket Derby John Endecott Nathaniel Hawthorne Frederick W. Lander Charles Grafton Page Timothy Pickering Sarah Parker Remond Samuel McIntyre, c. 1786, pastel portrait attributed to Benjamin Blyth Sister cities United States - Oroville, California (USA) 2007 Japan - Ota, Tokyo (Japan) 1991
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Zayn Malik has been teasing the rollout of his new album as "mysterious" and "different than anything anyone has done before." So far, he's released a lead single called "Let Me" with an accompanying (and embarrassingly bad) music video and now we have the follow up single, "Entertainer," complete w... *Springfield is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Clark County. The municipality is located in southwestern Ohio and is situated on the Mad River, Buck Creek and Beaver Creek, approximately 45 miles (72 km) west of Columbus and 25 miles (40 km) northeast of Dayton. Springfield is home to Wittenberg University, a liberal arts college. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 60,608. The Springfield Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 138,333 residents. and the Dayton-Springfield-Greenville, OH Combined Statistical Area had 1,072,891 residents. The Little Miami Scenic Trail, a paved rail-trail which is almost 80 miles long, goes from the Buck Creek Scenic Trailhead in Springfield south to Newtown, Ohio (near Cincinnati), and is popular with hikers and cyclists. In 1983, Newsweek featured Springfield in its 50th anniversary issue, entitled, "The American Dream." It chronicled the impact of the past 50 years on five local families. In 2004, Springfield was chosen as an "All-America City". In 2010, Springfield ranked third worst in a national wellbeing survey conducted by The Gallup Organization. In 2011, Springfield was named the "unhappiest city in America" by another Gallup survey.In 2015, Springfield was ranked the least healthy city in Ohio by 24/7 Wall St. Contents 1 History 2 Geography 3 Demographics 3.1 2010 census 3.2 Crime 4 Education 5 Media 6 Notable people 7 See also 8 References 9 External links History The villages of Peckuwe and Piqua were located near today's Springfield, Ohio, at 39° 54.5' N, 83° 54.68' W and 39° 54.501' N, 83° 54.682' W respectively, and were home to the Peckuwe and Kispoko Divisions of the Shawnee Tribe until the Battle of Piqua, August 8, 1780. The Piqua Sept of Ohio Shawnee Tribe have placed a traditional cedar pole in commemoration, located "on the southern edge of the George Rogers Clark Historical Park, in the lowlands in front of the park's 'Hertzler House.'" Springfield was founded by James Demint, a former teamster from Kentucky, in 1801. When Clark County was created from parts of Champaign, Madison and Greene counties, Springfield, named for Springfield, Massachusetts – which, at the time, was important for hosting the U.S. Federal Springfield Armory; enduring the Attack on Springfield during King Philip's War in 1675,; and Shays' Rebellion in 1787. Springfield traces its early growth to the National Road, which ended in Springfield for approximately 10 years as politicians wrangled over the path it would continue. Dayton and Eaton wanted the road to veer south after Springfield, but President Andrew Jackson made the final decision to have the road continue straight west to Richmond, Indiana. Springfield around 1830 Springfield around 1900 During the mid-and-late 19th century, Springfield was dominated by industrialists including Oliver S. Kelly, Asa S. Bushnell, James Leffel, P. P. Mast and Benjamin H. Warder. Asa S. Bushnell built the Springfield, Ohio Bushnell Building where the patent attorney to the Wright Brothers, Harry Aubrey Toulmin, Sr., wrote the 1904 patent to cover the invention of the airplane. To promote the products of his agricultural equipment company, P. P. Mast started the Farm and Fireside magazine. Mast's publishing company – Mast, Crowell, and Kirkpatrick – grew to become Crowell-Collier Publishing Company best known for Collier's Weekly. In 1894, The Kelly Springfield Tire Company was founded. At the turn of the 20th century Springfield became known as the "Home City." Several lodges including the Masonic Lodge, Knights of Pythias and Odd Fellows built homes for orphans and aged members of their order. Springfield also became known as "The Champion City". a reference to the Champion Farm Equipment brand manufactured by the Warder, Bushnell & Glessner Company, which was later absorbed into International Harvester in 1902. International remains in Springfield as Navistar International, a producer of medium to large trucks. In 1902 A.B. Graham, then the superintendent of schools for Springfield Township in Clark County, established a "Boys' and Girls' Agricultural Club." Approximately 85 children from 10 to 15 years of age attended the first meeting on January 15, 1902 in Springfield, Ohio, in the basement of the Clark County Courthouse. This was the start of what would be called the "4-H Club" within a few years, quickly growing to a nationwide organization. (4-H stands for "Head, Heart, Hands, and Health"). The first "projects" included food preservation, gardening and elementary agriculture. Today, the Courthouse still bears a large 4H symbol under the flag pole at the front of the building to commemorate its part in founding the organization. The Clark County Fair is the second largest fair in the state (only the Ohio State Fair is larger) in large part to 4H still remaining very popular in the area. On March 7, 1904, over a thousand residents formed a lynch mob, stormed the jail and removed prisoner Richard Dixon, a black man accused of murdering police officer Charles B. Collis. Richard Dixon was shot to death and then hung from a pole on the corner of Fountain and Main Street, where the mob continued to shoot his lifeless body. The mob then proceeded to burn much of the black area of town. In February 1906, another mob formed and again burned the black section of town known as "the levee". Sixty years later, Springfield was the first city in Ohio to have a black mayor, Robert Henry. Clark County Courthouse in downtown Springfield From 1916 to 1926, 10 automobile companies operated in Springfield. Among them: The Bramwell, Brenning, Foos, Frayer-Miller, Kelly Steam, Russell-Springfield and Westcott. The Westcott, known as the car built to last, was a six-cylinder four-door sedan manufactured by Burton J. Westcott of the Westcott Motor Car Company. Burton and Orpha Westcott however, are better known for having contracted the world-renowned architect Frank Lloyd Wright to design their home in 1908 at 1340 East High Street. The Westcott House, a sprawling two-story stucco and concrete house has all the features of Wright's prairie style including horizontal lines, low-pitched roof, and broad eaves. It is the only Frank Lloyd Wright prairie style house in the state of Ohio. The property was purchased in 2000 by the Frank Lloyd Wright Building Conservancy (Chicago, IL), and as part of a prearranged plan, the house was then sold to a newly formed local Westcott House Foundation. The Westcott House Foundation managed the extensive 5-year, $5.3 million restoration, the house was fully restored to its original glory in October 2005, when it officially opened to the public for guided tours. Old City Hall, now the Clark County Heritage Center International Harvester (now Navistar), manufacturer of farm machinery and later trucks, became the leading local industry after Springfield native William Whiteley invented the self-raking reaper and mower, in 1856. It held that position, along with Crowell-Collier Publishing, throughout most of the next century. The city is served by one daily newspaper, the Springfield News-Sun, and by one weekly newspaper, The Springfield Paper. Geography Springfield is located at 39°55'37?N 83°48'15?W (39.927067, -83.804131). According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 25.50 square miles (66.04 km2), of which, 25.29 square miles (65.50 km2) is land and 0.21 square miles (0.54 km2) is water. The Clarence J. Brown Reservoir is located on the northeast outskirts of Springfield. Demographics Historical population Census Pop. %± 1810 593 — 1820 1,868 215.0% 1830 1,080 -42.2% 1840 2,062 90.9% 1850 5,108 147.7% 1860 7,002 37.1% 1870 12,652 80.7% 1880 20,730 63.8% 1890 31,895 53.9% 1900 38,253 19.9% 1910 46,921 22.7% 1920 60,840 29.7% 1930 68,743 13.0% 1940 70,662 2.8% 1950 78,508 11.1% 1960 82,723 5.4% 1970 81,926 -1.0% 1980 72,563 -11.4% 1990 70,487 -2.9% 2000 65,358 -7.3% 2010 60,608 -7.3% Est. 2014 59,956  -1.1%  As of the 2000 census, the median income for a household in the city was $32,193, and the median income for a family was $39,890. Males had a median income of $32,027 versus $23,155 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,660. 16.9% of the population and 13.5% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 23.9% of those under the age of 18 and 9.6% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. 2010 census As of the 2010 census, there were 60,608 people, 24,459 households, and 14,399 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,693.7 people per square mile (1,039.6/km²). There were 28,437 housing units at an average density of 1,263.9 per square mile (487.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 75.2% White, 18.1% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 4.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.0% of the population. There are 24,459 households of which 26.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.4% are married couples living together, 18.6% have a female householder with no spouse present, 5.9% have a male householder with no spouse present, and 41.1% are non-families. 34.1% of all households are made up of individuals and 13.7% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.38 and the average family size is 3.01. In the population is spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 11.5% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 24.6% from 45 to 64, and 15.3% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 36 years. For every 100 females there are 90.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 86.2 males. Crime From 2012 through 2014, the city experienced a 21% increase in violent crime; from 618 per 100,000 persons to 750. Also during those years, occurrences of murder and non-negligent manslaughter steadily increased; from 5 to 7. As of December 8, 2015, the number of homicides in Springfield year-to-date was 12. Education Springfield Public Schools enroll 8,604 students in public primary and secondary schools. The district operates 16 public schools including ten elementary schools, three middle schools, one high school, and one alternative school. Springfield is also home to Nightingale Montessori, a small private school using the methods from Dr. Montessori. The school was founded over thirty years ago, and has been educating many from Springfield, Clark County and other surrounding counties such as Greene, Clinton, Champaign, Franklin, Madison and Logan. The school accepts the Ed Choice scholarship, The Jon Peterson Scholarship and the Autism Scholarship. Students are admitted as early as 2 1/2 years old through high school. Wittenberg University Springfield is home to two institutions of higher learning, Wittenberg University and Clark State Community College. Wittenberg University is a Lutheran University that was founded in Springfield in 1845. It is a four-year private liberal arts university. It has more than two thousand students and a faculty of more than one hundred ninety five. It is situated on a campus of one hundred and fourteen rolling acres, shaded by many majestic trees. It is one of the most highly rated liberal arts universities in the nation, offering more than seventy majors, which include those in the sciences as well as in the arts. Wittenberg has more than one hundred fifty campus organizations, which include ten national fraternities and sororities. It has its own WUSO radio station and newspaper. The University is best known for its music department and its athletic endeavors. Wittenberg is also distinguished by its strong interdisciplinary programs such as East Asian Studies and Russian Area Studies. Recently majors in Management, Communication, Education are also becoming popular. The University made major renovations to its science facilities with the opening of the Barbara Deer Kuss Science Center in 2003. The city is also home to Clark State Community College. Clark State Community College was founded in 1962 under the name of the Springfield and Clark County Technical Education Program as a technical education college for Clark County, Ohio and the surrounding area. It changed its name in 1966 to Clark County Technical Institute. The Ohio Board of Regents accredited it as Ohio's first technical college. It is now called Clark State Community College and has more than one thousand students. It offers courses in business, health, public services, engineering technologies, agriculture and general studies. Media In the 1950 film Pagan Love Song, starring Esther Williams, actor Howard Keel played Hap "Hazard" Endicott, a school teacher from Springfield, Ohio. In 2009, during a scene of the movie X-Men Origins: Wolverine, "Springfield, Ohio" is listed in the scene caption as the location of a carnival where Victor Creed/Sabretooth finds Chris Bradley/Bolt working as a game booth attendant. The Springfield News-Sun, The Wittenberg Torch, WEEC-FM radio, WUSO-FM radio are the city's main media organizations. PBS' Market Warriors is scheduled to air an episode on September 17, 2012 featuring the Springfield Antique Show and Flea Market. Notable people The following are notable people born and/or raised in Springfield: Berenice Abbott – photographer Randy Ayers – assistant coach of the New Orleans Pelicans, former head coach of Ohio State and the Philadelphia 76ers Dave Burba – major league baseball player William R. Burnett – novelist and screenwriter Garvin Bushell – musician (saxophone, clarinet, etc.) Justin Chambers – former model and actor (in the cast of Grey's Anatomy) Lewis Strong Clarke – Louisiana sugar planter and Republican politician in the 19th century Call Cobbs, Jr. – jazz pianist Jason Collier – professional basketball player Andrew Daniel – winner of Big Brother 5 Trey DePriest - Linebacker of the Baltimore Ravens, 2 time NCAA National Champion of the Alabama Crimson Tide football team. Mike DeWine – former US Senator for Ohio and present Ohio Attorney General Marsha Dietlein – actress Adam Eaton (outfielder) - Major league baseball player Wayne Embry – professional basketball player Lillian Gish – actress from the silent film era and after Luther Alexander Gotwald Prof., D.D. – tried for and acquitted of Lutheran heresy at Wittenberg College in 1893. Albert Belmont Graham – Founder of 4H Harvey Haddix – major league baseball player Robert C. Henry – first African American mayor of any city Dustin Hermanson – major league baseball player Dave Hobson – Former U.S. Congressman for Ohio's Seventh District Alice Hohlmayer – All-American Girls Professional Baseball League player Griffin House – singer-songwriter Jimmy Journell – major league baseball player J. Warren Keifer – Civil War General and Speaker of the House Bradley Kincaid -America's first country music star. He performed on WLS, WBZ, and WLW. David Ward King – inventor of the King road drag Brooks Lawrence – major league baseball player John Legend (a.k.a. John Stephens) – singer, musician, R&B and neo-soul pianist Lois Lenski – author and illustrator of children's fiction, including Strawberry Girl Deborah Loewer – U.S. Navy flag officer Luke Lucas – major league baseball player Johnny Lytle – jazz musician Will McEnaney – major league baseball player, pitcher for the Cincinnati Reds Jeff Meckstroth – Multiple world champion bridge player Davey Moore – Boxer, World Featherweight Title holder 1959–1963 Troy Perkins – professional soccer player Carl Ferdinand Pfeifer – Presidential aide Coles Phillips – early 20th century illustrator, inventor of the "fade-away" girl Robert Bruce Raup – Professor, Teachers College, Columbia University, writer, and critic of American Education system. Alaina Reed Hall – television actress, "227 (TV series)" and "Sesame Street" Cecil Scott – jazz clarinetist, tenor saxophonist, and bandleader Dick Shatto – professional Canadian football player Winant Sidle – U.S. Army Major General James Garfield Stewart, Supreme Court of Ohio the 109th Justice Dann Stupp – author Charles Thompson – jazz musician Tommy Tucker (a.k.a. Robert Higginbotham) – jazz musician W. D. Twichell – surveyor Christopher J. Waild – screenwriter Earle Warren – jazz saxophonist with Count Basie Walter L. Weaver – U.S. Representative from Ohio Rick White – major league baseball player Worthington Whittredge – Hudson River School painter Jonathan Winters – actor and comedian
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Professional troll Kanye West has found an even more effective way to enrage black people (nay, all sane people) than saying slavery was a choice. According to Entertainment Weekly, Kanye's disrespecting Whitney Houston by using an old tabloid picture of her drug-strewn mess of a bathroom taken without her knowledge as album cover art for Pusha T. If ghosts are real, Nippy's coming for you and she's bringing Nat Turner and Harriet Tubman with her to Fuck. Your. Shit. Up!
Kanye produced Pusha T's album Daytona. It's the first album produced at Kanye's studio Wyoming.
West is producing Daytona, Pusha T's upcoming album, and on Thursday he tweeted the cover art, revealing that it is a bleak photograph of the late singer Whitney Houston's bathroom covered in drug paraphernalia. The photo was taken secretly by one of Houston's family members in 2006 and ran in the National Enquirer the same year, as Houston struggled with drug addiction.
Apparently, this "art" was a last minute decision. There was originally a different cover, but Kanye's tin-foil hat got to itching and so he made a call.
"He changed my artwork last night at 1 a.m. He wasn't feeling it," Pusha T told radio host Angie Martinez. "[Originally], the artwork — it was pictures that we all agreed on." He also said West told him the photo had cost him $85,000. I love it, I actually do love it," Pusha T said. "[But] I absolutely did not want to pay for it."
No money, no problem! Kanye's loaded so he bought the rights himself.
Though West purportedly paid $85,000 to license the photo, it's unclear whether he paid the National Enquirer or Houston's sister-in-law Tina Brown, sister to Houston's ex-husband, Bobby Brown.
Nobody tells Kanye "no, that's a terrible idea". Pusha T signed off on it saying that the picture "definitely does match the energy of my album" but under his breath he probably added a defeated "shit". But I'm not in Kanye's pockets so Kanye, if you reading this: FUCK NO, THIS IS A TERRIBLE IDEA. May the wrath of your ancestors come down on you so hard that 20 years from now, some upstart rapper uses a tabloid picture of your busted ass R.V. filled with jars of your own urine and MAGA scrawled backwards in KKW lipstick all over the walls, for their shitty album cover.
*Auburn is a city in Lee County, Alabama, United States. It is the largest city in eastern Alabama with a 2014 population of 60,258. It is a principal city of the Auburn-Opelika Metropolitan Area. The Auburn-Opelika, AL MSA with a population of 150,933, along with the Columbus, GA-AL MSA and Tuskegee, Alabama, comprises the greater Columbus-Auburn-Opelika, GA-AL CSA, a region home to 501,649 residents. Auburn is a college town and is the home of Auburn University. It is currently the fastest-growing metropolitan area in Alabama and the nineteenth fastest-growing metro area in the United States since 1990. U.S. News ranked Auburn among its top ten list of best places to live in United States for the year 2009. The city's unofficial nickname is "The Loveliest Village On The Plains," taken from a line in the poem The Deserted Village by Oliver Goldsmith: "Sweet Auburn! loveliest village of the plain..." Contents 1 History 2 Law and government 3 Geography 3.1 Climate 4 Economy 5 Public safety 6 Demographics 6.1 2000 Census data 6.2 2010 census 7 Education 8 Transportation 9 Arts, culture, and recreation 10 Sports 11 Media 12 Notable people 13 Nearby cities/communities 14 Auburn in fiction 15 Notes 16 References 17 External links History Downtown Auburn, Alabama. Inhabited in antiquity by the Creek, the land on which Auburn sits was opened to settlement in 1832 with the Treaty of Cusseta. The first settlers arrived in the winter of 1836 from Harris County, Georgia. These settlers, led by Judge John J. Harper, intended to build a town that would be the religious and educational center for the area. Auburn was incorporated on February 2, 1839, covering an area of 2 square miles (5.2 km2). By that time, Methodist and Baptist churches had been established, and a school had been built and had come into operation. In the mid-1840s, separate academies for boys and girls were established in addition to the primary school. This concentration of educational institutions led to a rapid influx of families from the planter class into Auburn in the 1840s and 1850s. By 1858, of the roughly 1,000 free residents of Auburn, some 500 were students. In 1856, the state legislature chartered a Methodist college, the East Alabama Male College in Auburn. This college, now Auburn University, opened its doors in 1859, offering a classical and liberal education. With the advent of the Civil War in 1861, Auburn quickly emptied. All of the schools closed, and most businesses shuttered. Auburn was the site of a hospital for Texan Confederate soldiers, but only saw direct combat with the raids of Rousseau in 1864 and Wilson in 1865. One of Auburn's many biking and walking trails. After the Civil War, Auburn's economy entered a prolonged depression that would last the remainder of the century. Public schools did not reopen until the mid-1870s, and most businesses remained closed. A series of fires in the 1860s and 1870s gutted the downtown area. East Alabama Male College was turned over to the state in 1872, and with funds from the federal Morrill Act was renamed Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical College with a new mission as a land grant college. Passage of the Hatch Act in 1887 allowed for expansion of agricultural research facilities on campus. In 1892, the college became the first four-year college in Alabama to admit women. This, combined with increased interest in scientific agriculture and engineering and new funding from business licenses, allowed the city to start expanding again. By 1910, Auburn's population had returned to its antebellum level. SIAA Conference championships won by the Auburn college's football team brought attention and support to Auburn, and helped fill the city's coffers. Fortunes were quickly reversed with the collapse of cotton prices in the early 1920s and the subsequent Great Depression a decade later. Due to these events, the state government became unable to fund the college, and—as Auburn's economy was completely derived from the college—residents were forced into a barter economy to support themselves. Money began to flow into Auburn again with America's entry into World War II. Auburn's campus was turned into a training ground for technical specialists in the armed forces. After the war, Auburn was flooded by soldiers returning to school on the G.I. Bill. Primarily due to this influx of students, Auburn began a period of growth that lasted through the 1950s and 1960s. A considerable amount of residential and business construction pushed Auburn's growth outside of the original boundaries of the city, leading to a series of large annexations which expanded Auburn to nearly 24 square miles (62 km2). Construction of Interstate 85 beginning in 1957 connected Auburn to the major cities of the state. This allowed for Auburn University (renamed in 1960) to schedule more home football games in Auburn rather than in larger cities, creating a strong tourism component in Auburn's economy. Auburn Mall opened as "Village Mall" in 1973. Growth slowed somewhat in the 1970s, and a series of budget cuts made it clear that Auburn's sole economic reliance on Auburn University put the city in a tenuous position. Backlash against what was seen as an ineffectual city council led to the election of Jan Dempsey as mayor in 1980 and the removal of the previous city government system in favor of a council-manager system. With a new government in place, the city began aggressively pursuing industry, leading to a nearly 1,200% increase in the number of industrial jobs over the next twenty years. As public satisfaction with the city administration reached record levels, Auburn began very rapid residential growth. A series of reports in the 1980s and 1990s ranking the Auburn public school system among the top in the state and nation convinced thousands of new residents to move to Auburn over the past 25 years. Between 1980 and 2003, Auburn's population grew by 65%, and Auburn's economy expanded by 220%. With growth came issues of urban sprawl, which has become the primary political issue in Auburn at the turn of the 21st century. Law and government City map of Auburn. Auburn City Hall Auburn has a council-manager government led by an eight-member city council, a mayor, and an appointed city manager. The city council acts as a legislative body of the city, passing laws and regulations and appointing citizens to the city's various boards, including the Auburn City Board of Education. Each member of the city council is elected for a four-year term from one of eight geographic wards. Ward 1 is designed to ensure African-American representation on the council. Members of the current Auburn City Council are: Ward 1 - Clemon Byrd Ward 2 - Ron Anders, Jr. Ward 3 - Beth Witten Ward 4 - Brent Beard Ward 5 - Lynda Tremaine Ward 6 - Dick Phelan Ward 7 - Gene Dulaney Ward 8 - Tommy Dawson The mayor of Auburn is elected in the city at-large to a four-year term. The duties of the mayor are, per State Code: 1) ceremonial, 2) to serve as the Governor's contact in the event of an emergency and 3) to conduct Council meetings. The Mayor has no administrative duties, as the City Manager serves as the CEO. As such, the position of mayor in Auburn is primarily symbolic. The current mayor of Auburn is Bill Ham, Jr. The day-to-day operations of Auburn are run by the City Manager. The City Manager is appointed by and serves at the leisure of the City Council. The City Manager is responsible for the appointment and dismissal of all department heads, advises the council on policy matters, and creates and administers the city budget. The current City Manager of Auburn is Charlie Duggan. The United States Postal Service operates a post office at 300 Opelika Road, Auburn, Alabama. Geography A creek flowing through Chewacla State Park in Auburn. The city of Auburn lies in western Lee County and is bordered by the city of Opelika to the northeast and by Chambers County to the north. The city stretches south to the Macon County line in the southwest. Auburn sits on the fall line at the juncture of the piedmont plateau and the coastal plain. Portions of Auburn also include the southernmost exposure of rocks indicating the Appalachian orogeny—as such, the last foothill of the Appalachian Mountains lies in Chewacla State Park in southern Auburn. As a result of these three varied physical environments, Auburn has an extremely diverse geology. The southwest and west regions of the city on the plateau are marked by rolling plains and savannahs, with the undeveloped portion primarily being used for cattle grazing and ranching. South of this region sits the coastal plain, with sandy soil and pine forest. Parts of north Auburn have much more rugged topographies, with thick forests in high hills and deep hollows of the type common to parts of eastern Tennessee. The region surrounded by Chewacla Park in the south of the city contains sharp peaks and sudden drops of elevation as the 1.05 billion-year-old rock of the Appalachians meets the coastal plain. Auburn sits near the divide between the Chattahoochee and Tallapoosa River watersheds. Auburn is drained by three main creek systems: in the south, by the Chewacla/Opintlocco Creek system; in the north, by the Saugahatchee Creek system; and in the extreme northern reaches of Auburn by Sandy Creek. The dividing line between the Chewacla and Saugahatchee watersheds roughly follows railroad line east-west through the center of town. Auburn is located at 32°35'52?N 85°28'51?W (32.597684, -85.480823) and according to the U.S. Census Bureau in 2000, the city has a total area of 39.6 square miles (103 km2), of which, 39.1 square miles (101 km2) of it is land and 0.4 square miles (1.0 km2) of it (1.11%) is water. The elevation of Auburn at City Hall is 709 ft (216 m) above sea level; though due to Auburn's diverse topography, elevation ranges from 386 ft (118 m) above sea level where Chewacla Creek crosses Sand Hill Road to 845 ft (258 m) above sea level in northern Auburn near the Chambers County line. Climate Typical of the Deep South, Auburn has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), marked by mild winters, early springs, long, hot, muggy summers, and warm autumns. Due to its position near the Gulf of Mexico, the city receives a significant amount of rainfall—on average, 52.6 inches (1,340 mm) per year—though there is a distinct dry season in the late summer and early fall. Severe storm activity - thunderstorms producing damaging winds and/or large hail - is common from the late winter through early summer. There is the risk of tornadoes. Owing to its proximity to the Gulf, Auburn is also subject to fringe effects from tropical storms and hurricanes in the summer and fall. Hurricanes Opal in 1995 and Ivan in 2004 are among two of the most notable tropical systems to affect the Auburn area in recent memory, bringing torrential rains and high winds. Winters are typically mild, with an average 0.7 inches (1.8 cm) of snowfall, though more than three-fourths of all seasons do not have any measurable snow. Most days have 50 °F (10 °C)+ highs, and from December to February, an average total of 10–11 days of 70 °F (21 °C)+ highs, while it rarely stays below freezing all day. However, the city straddles the border between USDA Plant Hardiness Zones 7B and 8A, and there are an average of 5.6 nights with sub-20 °F (-7 °C) lows. On the other end, summers are long, hot, and humid, with 57 days of 90 °F (32 °C)+ highs. Although the actual air temperature reaching 100 °F (38 °C) is uncommon (1.2 days annually), high humidity can push daytime heat indices over that mark. The record high for Auburn is 103 °F (39 °C), set on July 15, 1980 (needs updating), and August 10, 1980, while the record low was -7 °F (-22 °C), set on February 13, 1899, and January 21, 1985. [hide]Climate data for Auburn, Alabama (Auburn University) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Average high °F (°C) 56.1 (13.4) 60.4 (15.8) 67.9 (19.9) 74.6 (23.7) 82.6 (28.1) 88.3 (31.3) 90.8 (32.7) 89.8 (32.1) 85.7 (29.8) 76.8 (24.9) 67.8 (19.9) 58.2 (14.6) 75.0 (23.9) Average low °F (°C) 33.8 (1) 37.3 (2.9) 44.2 (6.8) 51.3 (10.7) 60.2 (15.7) 67.0 (19.4) 70.3 (21.3) 70.5 (21.4) 64.6 (18.1) 54.8 (12.7) 45.0 (7.2) 36.3 (2.4) 53.0 (11.7) Average precipitation inches (mm) 4.54 (115.3) 4.36 (110.7) 5.85 (148.6) 3.84 (97.5) 3.25 (82.6) 4.61 (117.1) 6.09 (154.7) 3.22 (81.8) 4.44 (112.8) 3.19 (81) 4.28 (108.7) 4.88 (124) 52.55 (1,334.8) Average precipitation days (= 0.01 in) 10.8 9.7 9.5 8.6 8.3 10.1 12.8 10.2 8.0 6.8 8.5 9.7 113.0 Source: NOAA Economy Samford Hall, on the Auburn University campus. Auburn's economy is centered on Auburn University and providing university-affiliated services. Auburn University employs 4,300 people, which is roughly one-quarter of the city's total workforce. In addition, 2,400 Auburnites are employed by the federal and state government in positions which are generally connected with the university. Some 8,500 are employed in service sector jobs. Auburn's industrial base is built around mid-sized, high tech manufacturing and research firms. Auburn has one industrial park and four technology parks where main areas of industrial focus are on the manufacture of small engines, automotive wheels, fuel cells, plastic injection technology, and vehicle armor. The 156-acre (0.63 km2) Auburn University Research Park opened in September, 2008 and will be anchored by a firm which specializes in research in high-resolution, dark field optical microscopy. The Research Park includes several buildings housing research in many different specialties, including the MRI Research Center which features both a 3 Tesla and a 7 Tesla MRI scanner. Overall, the manufacturing sector accounts for some 5,000 jobs in Auburn. Auburn is located between the Kia and Hyundai automobile manufacturing facilities with the Kia Motors manufacturing plant about 35 miles (56 km) east on I-85 and the Hyundai Motors manufacturing plant about 55 miles (89 km) west on I-85/I-65. Public safety The Public Safety Department has five divisions: Police, Fire, Communications, Codes Enforcement, and Administration. The department provides all law enforcement, public safety services, and emergency 911 response and dispatch services for the City of Auburn and the campus of Auburn University. Construction activities in the City are monitored and inspected by the Codes Enforcement Division. Ambulance services are provided via a contract with East Alabama Medical Center. Auburn's police department has been criticized for having a quota: officers must make at least 100 interactions with the public a month - either fines, arrests, or interviews. Critics say this encourages police officers to make arbitrary or unfounded arrests. Demographics Historical population Census Pop. %± 1870 1,018 — 1880 1,161 14.0% 1890 1,440 24.0% 1900 1,447 0.5% 1910 1,408 -2.7% 1920 2,143 52.2% 1930 2,800 30.7% 1940 4,652 66.1% 1950 12,939 178.1% 1960 16,261 25.7% 1970 22,767 40.0% 1980 28,471 25.1% 1990 33,830 18.8% 2000 42,987 27.1% 2010 53,380 24.2% Est. 2014 60,258  12.9% U.S. Decennial Census 2013 Estimate 2000 Census data As of the 2000 census, there were 42,987 people, 18,421 households, and 7,239 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,098.6 people per square mile (424.2/km2). There were 20,043 housing units at an average density of 512.2 per square mile (197.8/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 78.05% White, 16.79% Black or African American, 0.19% Native American, 3.31% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.57% from other races, and 1.05% from two or more races. 1.55% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 18,421 households out of which 18.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.6% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 60.7% were non-families. 36.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.12 and the average family size was 2.93. In the city the population was spread out with 15.4% under the age of 18, 44.6% from 18 to 24, 21.9% from 25 to 44, 11.7% from 45 to 64, and 6.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 23 years. For every 100 females there were 99.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $17,206, and the median income for a family was $55,619. Males had a median income of $41,012 versus $26,209 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,431. About 14.0% of families and 38.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.5% of those under age 18 and 8.8% of those age 65 or over. The reason for this enormous inequality between households and families is due to the large number of students living in the area. 2010 census As of the 2010 census, there were 53,380 people, 22,111 households, and 9,900 families residing in the city. The population density was 919.2 people per square mile (383.8/km2). There were 24,646 housing units at an average density of 424.4 per square mile (177.2/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 75.1% White, 16.5% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 5.3% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 1.1% from other races, and 1.6% from two or more races. 2.9% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 22,111 households out of which 22.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.4% were married couples living together, 8.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 55.2% were non-families. 33.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.99. In the city the population was spread out with 17.5% under the age of 18, 38.0% from 18 to 24, 23.1% from 25 to 44, 14.6% from 45 to 64, and 6.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 23.3 years. For every 100 females there were 100.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,857, and the median income for a family was $72,771. Males had a median income of $51,644 versus $36,898 for females. The per capita income for the city was $24,656. About 9.2% of families and 25.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.0% of those under age 18 and 3.6% of those age 65 or over. The reason for this enormous inequality between households and families is due to the large number of students living in the area. Education See also Auburn City Schools, Auburn High School (Alabama) and Auburn University. Auburn City Schools headquarters Auburn Public Library Auburn High School Library Auburn, as a college town, is largely driven by the influence of education. Auburn has one post-secondary school, Auburn University, which has an enrollment of just over 27,000. Auburn University is a land-grant university and a sea and space grant university with traditionally strong programs in business, engineering, agriculture, and veterinary medicine. The university is largely focused on undergraduate education, with a graduate program of 5,000. Auburn University is a research institution, with primary areas of research focus including wireless engineering, molecular biosciences, transportation, aquaculture, and forest sustainability. Auburn is also home to several research centers, including the Ludwig von Mises Institute. Auburn's public school system includes six elementary schools, one middle school, one junior high school, and one high school. Auburn's school system has repeatedly been ranked among the top public school systems in the state and nation. Auburn City Schools has been ranked among the top 100 school districts in the United States by Parenting magazine and as the best educational value in the Southeast by the Wall Street Journal. Auburn's Early Education Center has specialized programs for autism education, has been recognized as a national Blue Ribbon school, and is an Intel and Scholastic School of Distinction. Wrights Mill Road Elementary School was recognized as a national Blue Ribbon school in 2009, while Auburn Junior High School is recognized nationally for its 21st Century Laptop Learning Initiative, which places laptops in the hands of students in grades 8 and 9. Auburn High School has strong International Baccalaureate, widely offered Advanced Placement, and renowned music programs, and was ranked in 2006 by Newsweek as the top non-magnet public high school in Alabama, and one of the top 30 in the United States. Auburn has the Auburn Public Library. Transportation Toomer's Corner in downtown Auburn. Auburn is located in the southeastern part of Alabama and is accessible by Interstate 85, US 29, and US 280. The city also has a general aviation airport, the Auburn University Regional Airport (AUO) (formerly Auburn-Opelika Robert G. Pitts Airport), which is 2 miles (3.2 km) east of downtown Auburn. The major commercial airports closest to Auburn are the Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL) (Atlanta) and the Birmingham-Shuttlesworth International Airport (BHM) (Birmingham). Each of these airports is within 2 hours driving distance from Auburn and together they offer air service to most of the world's major airports. There are also two regional airports close to Auburn: Montgomery Regional Airport (MGM) (Montgomery) and the Columbus Metropolitan Airport (CSG) (Columbus). Groome Transportation provides daily ground transportation between Auburn and the Atlanta airport. Twin City Taxi, Eagle Town Taxi, Spirit Town Taxi, and Tiger Taxi provides both local taxi service and flat-rate transportation service to other cities. Auburn University provides the Tiger Transit bus system, which shuttles students, staff and faculty around campus and to area apartment complexes. Lee-Russell Public Transit (LRPT) offers Dial-A-Ride services in Lee and Russell counties. Auburn is one of the most bicycle-friendly small towns in the country and received an award for being a bike friendly town from the League of American Bicyclists. The Auburn Bike Committee posts a list of bike rides and events. Arts, culture, and recreation Auburn's Jule Collins Smith Museum of Fine Art. Felton Little Park. Auburn is the home to the Jule Collins Smith Museum of Fine Art. The Smith Museum maintains a collection of primarily 19th- and 20th-century American and European art. The museum's exhibits include the Advancing American Art Collection, consisting of 36 works by mid-20th-century American artists including Jacob Lawrence, Ben Shahn, and Georgia O'Keeffe, a collection of engravings by naturalist John James Audubon, and works by Dalí, Chagall, Renoir, Picasso, and Matisse. Major sculptural works at the museum include a collection of Tibetan bronzes, Jean Woodham's Spinoff, and Dale Chihuly's Amber Luster Chandelier. Also in Auburn is the Telfair Peet Theatre, which performs a series of plays and musicals each year. The Auburn Community Orchestra, as well as the bands of Auburn University and the Auburn High School Honors Band perform dozens of yearly concerts, including a series of outdoor concerts in the fall at Kiesel Park. Other musical series in Auburn include that of the Auburn Knights Orchestra, a big band jazz orchestra, and the Sundilla Acoustic Concert Series. The theatre is rumoured to be haunted by a ghost named Sydney, who the theatre department appeases before every performance with a package of Reese's Pieces. Auburn is also home to Auburn Area Community Theater (AACT), a community-based organization that puts on three productions a year, including a spring children's show. All performances are rehearsed and performed at the Jan Dempsey Community Arts Center. There are a number of dance schools in Auburn that give classes in a variety of dance styles, such as ballet, jazz, hip-hop, ballroom, and even Irish dancing, which is supported by the Drake School of Irish Dance. Recreational opportunities in Auburn include 16 parks, highlighted by Chewacla State Park, a 700-acre (2.8 km2) park in the Appalachian foothills, Kiesel Park, a 200-acre (0.81 km2) "passive" park with numerous trails, and the Louise Kreher Forest Ecology Preserve. The Donald E. Davis Arboretum showcases 150 different tree species native to Alabama and the Southeast. Auburn is also ringed by miles of multi-use trails and several lakes. Sports See also: Auburn Tigers Auburn has no professional sports teams, but nonetheless has a vibrant sports culture due to the presence of Auburn University's NCAA Division I athletic squads. Auburn University football in particular is a major force in Auburn's culture and economy. When Auburn University has home football games in the fall, the city often sees over 100,000 visitors, and the yearly economic impact is measured at nearly $100 million. While other sports do not attract as many tourists to Auburn, the university's 17 varsity sports offer citizens a variety of other opportunities for viewing competition at virtually the highest level. Home football games particularly change the face of Auburn for several weekends a year. Tens of thousands of fans flood the campus hours—sometimes days—before the game to tailgate, creating a festival-like atmosphere throughout the weekend. Football games in Auburn are played in 87,451 seat Jordan-Hare Stadium, which sits on the main campus, just a few blocks from downtown. Basketball is played at 9,600-seat Auburn Arena, while baseball games are held at 4,096-seat Plainsman Park, which was named the top collegiate ballpark in the nation by Baseball America in 2003. One of Auburn's most competitive sports is the swimming program, which has won seven of the last nine NCAA national championships including the last five straight and 11 consecutive SEC men's championships. Also, the women's program have won five NCAA national titles and four SEC championships. The teams compete at the James E. Martin Aquatics Center. More Olympic swimmers have come from Auburn's swimming program than any other university swimming program. The Auburn Metro Area is home to 146 holes of golf at six courses, and has played host to several professional and amateur golf tournaments. Auburn Links was rated as one of the top three new courses in the nation when it opened in 1996, and the Robert Trent Jones-designed Grand National course in the Auburn metro is often cited as one of the top public courses in the nation. Because of this, in 2005, the Auburn Metro Area was ranked number 1 in the United States for golf by Golf Digest. Media See also: List of television stations in Alabama, List of radio stations in Alabama and List of newspapers in Alabama Auburn is served by the Columbus, Georgia Television Designated Market Area (DMA). Some Montgomery, Alabama stations are carried on cable systems and WSFA is designated by the FCC as a significantly viewed station for the area. Charter Communications and W.O.W. (Wide Open West) provide cable television service. DirecTV and Dish Network provide direct broadcast satellite television including both local and national channels. The On-Campus television station, Eagle Eye TV, is broadcast twenty-four hours a day for residents living on-campus and the immediate surrounding areas. Radio stations WEGL and WAUD are licensed to Auburn and broadcast from the city. Radio station WKKR is licensed to Auburn and broadcasts from nearby Opelika. Newspapers serving the city include The Opelika-Auburn News, The Auburn Villager, and The Auburn Plainsman. Notable people Main article: List of Auburn, Alabama people Auburn has had many notable citizens in its 170-year history, including Nobel Prize winners such as Frederick C. Robbins and George F. Smoot, world-class architects including Paul Rudolph and Samuel "Sambo" Mockbee, artists, governors, generals and admirals, and professional athletes. Robert Gibbs, the 28th White House Press Secretary and the first Press Secretary for President Barack Obama, is a graduate of Auburn High School. Nearby cities/communities Opelika, Alabama Loachapoka, Alabama Waverly, Alabama Beauregard, Alabama Beulah, Alabama Gold Hill, Alabama Bee Hive, Alabama The Bottle, Alabama Notasulga, Alabama Tuskegee, Alabama Auburn in fiction The fictional G.I. Joe character, Beach Head, was from Auburn. The book Big Fish: A Novel of Mythic Proportions by Daniel Wallace, and its derivative movie, Tim Burton's Big Fish, were both in part set in Auburn, though the movie was not filmed in Auburn. Auburn received mentions in the 1960 film Ocean's Eleven and 1971's Brian's Song. Harper Lee mentions Auburn in To Kill a Mockingbird. Anne Rivers Siddons, an Auburn University alumna, portrayed a fictionalized Auburn campus and students in Heartbreak Hotel. Caroline Ivey's characters visit Auburn in her novel Family. Jennifer S. Davis mentions Auburn in her short story collection Her Kind of Want. Ann B. Pearson, Auburn University graduate and the granddaughter of one of that school's presidents, fictionalized Auburn in the mystery books she wrote. The fictional veterinarian, Dr. Pharamond (Fair) Haristeen, in the mystery series written by Rita Mae Brown and Sneaky Pie Brown, graduated from Auburn University's veterinary school in Auburn. A skit on the popular sketch comedy show Saturday Night Live featured an opening song mentioning "the lights of Auburn, Alabama." Pepper Rodgers's novel Fourth and Long Gone is largely set in a college town based on Auburn. John Travolta plays Bobby Long, a former Auburn University English professor, in 2004's A Love Song for Bobby Long. Long's protégé and former Auburn University teaching assistant is a writer named Lawson Pines, played by Gabriel Macht. In the video game Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell: Double Agent, one of the main villain's profiles states that he was a football player at Auburn University. In the 1976 movie Stay Hungry, lead character Craig 'Buck' Blake (played by Jeff Bridges) says he is a scatback for the Auburn University football team. On multiple episodes of How I Met Your Mother, Marshall Eriksen (played by Jason Segel) can be seen wearing an Auburn University T-shirt. The children's chapter book Samantha Loses the Box Turtle is set in Auburn, AL and features a turtle that resides at the Louise Kreher Forest Ecology Preserve in Auburn.
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